Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST)

Cognitive Stimulation involves taking part in activities and exercises designed to improve memory, problem-solving skills and language ability.

Evidence suggests that cognitive stimulation can improve thinking and memory skills in people with dementia. It is currently the only psychological treatment directly recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to help people with mild or moderate dementia.

Reality orientation may also be beneficial in some cases, but the benefits can be small and are often only apparent with continued effort.